16 Oct battle of okinawa casualties
In March 2007, the national Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) advised textbook publishers to reword descriptions that the embattled Imperial Japanese Army forced civilians to kill themselves in the war so they would not be taken prisoner by the U.S. military. With the impending victory of American troops, civilians often committed mass suicide, urged on by the Japanese soldiers who told locals that victorious American soldiers would go on a rampage of killing and raping. There is ongoing major disagreement between Okinawa's local government and Japan's national government over the role of the Japanese military in civilian mass suicides during the battle. Unburied Japanese bodies decayed, sank in the mud, and became part of a noxious stew. The Japanese retreat—although harassed by artillery fires—was conducted with great skill at night and aided by the monsoon storms. 1 - BY NAME 1941-45, CABOT In all, the 10th Army contained 102,000 Army and 81,000 Marine Corps personnel. The British Pacific Fleet was assigned the task of neutralizing the Japanese airfields in the Sakishima Islands, which it did successfully from 26 March-10 April. However, on May 21, General Ushijima called a conference in the middle of the night in the command caves under the castle. The lists are first arranged by state, territory, overseas possession, or foreign country. But what Japanese soldiers lacked in number, they made up for in loyalty. , Marine Corps officials in Okinawa and Washington have stated that they "knew of no rapes by American servicemen in Okinawa at the end of the war, and their records do not list war crimes committed by Marines in Okinawa". Wikimedia CommonsShuri Castle before the Battle of Okinawa. Direct War 2 - United States Navy at War, UNITED At the end of April, after the Army forces had pushed through the Machinato defensive line and airfield, the 1st Marine Division relieved the 27th Infantry Division, and the 77th Infantry Division relieved the 7th. The main landing was made by XXIV Corps and III Amphibious Corps on the Hagushi beaches on the western coast of Okinawa on L-Day, 1 April, which was both Easter Sunday and April Fools' Day in 1945. On 31 March, Marines of the Fleet Marine Force Amphibious Reconnaissance Battalion landed without opposition on Keise Shima, four islets just 8 mi (13 km) west of the Okinawan capital of Naha. The ground advance began to resemble a World War I battlefield as troops became mired in mud and flooded roads greatly inhibited evacuation of wounded to the rear.  U.S. forces suffered their highest-ever casualty rate for combat stress reaction during the entire war, at 48%, with some 14,000 soldiers retired due to nervous breakdown. US Signal Corps/The LIFE Picture Collection via Getty Images. During World War II there were two main battlefields, the first was of course in Europe against Italy, Nazi. The assault caused extensive damage to hundreds of vessels, including both US and British aircraft carriers, even though the latter were fitted with armoured decks. S. Nichols, Jr., USMC and Henry I. Shaw, Jr.", http://www.ibiblio.org/hyperwar/USMC/USMC-M-Okinawa/USMC-M-Okinawa-2.html, The United States Navy assembled an unprecedented armada in April 1945. For Japan, the battle of Okinawa was the first time they encountered an enemy at home during World War II. Col. Yahara had asked Ushijima for permission to commit suicide, but the general refused his request, saying: "If you die there will be no one left who knows the truth about the battle of Okinawa. They lay in wait, conserving all their artillery for an inland fight at the Shuri Defense Line on the other side of the island. An emotional debate ensued, but he backed a motion by Prime Minister Suzuki to accept the Potsdam Declaration. Okinawa is an island on the southern end of Japan, it is around 60 miles (96 kilometers) long and 2 (3 kilometers) to 18 miles (29 kilometers) wide. The Japanese defenses were sited on reverse slopes, where the defenders waited out the artillery barrage and aerial attack in relative safety, emerging from the caves to rain mortar rounds and grenades upon the Americans advancing up the forward slope. 6 of the Most Important Speeches in History, The Worst Epidemic in History? United States Objectives in the Pacific Theater, Military Estimates of Japanese Forces on Okinawa, American Forces Available for the Okinawa Landings, Negative Effects on the U.S. Economy Caused by World War 2, The P-51 Mustang in Europe, The need for and effects of the P-51 Mustang in the skies over Europe, The Deuce and a Half, The Backbone of Allied Armies. Even then, the majority of the Japanese war council did not want to comply with the terms of unconditional surrender. The forces on the island were under the command of Lieutenant-General Mitsuru Ushijima, he had orders to hold the island at any cost. The Americans had already witnessed the willingness of Japanese soldiers to fight to the death in battles such as Iwo Jima and Saipan. General MacArthur stated that the opposing factions did not meet "in a spirit of mistrust, malice or hatred but rather, it is for us, both victors and vanquished, to rise to that higher dignity which alone benefits the sacred purposes we are about to serve.". 1 and about 5 mi (8.0 km) northwest of Shuri, from what came to be known as Cactus Ridge. MEXT preferred descriptions that just say that civilians received hand grenades from the Japanese military. After fierce close combat the attackers retreated, only to repeat their offensive the following night. The wounded either continued fighting until they die, or were stitched up and sent back out to the front line where they fought until their last breath. Navy and Marine Corps fighters downed 3,047, while shipboard anti-aircraft fire felled 409, and B-29s destroyed 558 on the ground.. For other uses, see Okinawa (disambiguation). Appleman, Roy E.; James M. Burns; Russell A. Gugeler; John Stevens (2000). to Part 1 - by NAME: Part The U.S. land forces involved included the 10th Army, commanded by Lieutenant General Simon Bolivar Buckner, Jr. As the American assault against Kakazu Ridge stalled, Gen. Ushijima—influenced by Gen. Chō—decided to take the offensive. The American invasion of Okinawa was the largest amphibious invasion of all time. The nicknames refer to the ferocity of the fighting, the intensity of kamikaze attacks from the Japanese defenders, and to the sheer numbers of Allied ships and armored vehicles that assaulted the island. While he accompanied the 77th infantry division, Japanese machine gunners killed Pyle, a man whose war-time coverage made him a beloved correspondent. After keeping an eye on their movements, Allied forces realized that Japan was retreating. Discover more about the Battle of Okinawa and a few highlights from our collection. Okinawa: the last battle. The army had two corps under its command, III Amphibious Corps under Major General Roy Geiger, consisting of 1st and 6th Marine Divisions, and XXIV Corps under Maj. Gen. John R. Hodge, consisting of the 7th and 96th Infantry Divisions. U.S. Marines pump water from a well for their mascot, a baby goat. Homepage and Site Search, World 14,009 Allied deaths (over 12,500 Americans killed or missing) and 77,166 Japanese soldiers. American Marine Terry Moore cleans his Browning automatic rifle during a lull. By 21 May, he had to retreat from the Shuri Line, that didn’t mean that the Japanese defense weakened, however. to Part 1 - by NAME: POW/MIA The Okinawan language differs greatly from the Japanese language; with Americans at their sides, Okinawans would give directions to people in the local language, and those who did not understand were considered Japanese in hiding who were then captured. ", In its history of the war, the Okinawa Prefectural Peace Memorial Museum presents Okinawa as being caught in the fighting between America and Japan. On the sea the U.S. had over 5,000 dead and over 4,500 wounded. The Japanese had prepared their positions well and fought tenaciously. Contents 1 Bulletin of the Okinawa Operation MOB 56 2 Okinawa Bulletin #2: Final Phases MOB 64 3 … Wikipedia, Battle of Peleliu — Part of World War II, Pacific War … Wikipedia, Battle of Monte Cassino — Part of World War II, Italian Campaign Ruins of Cassino town after the battle … Wikipedia, Battle of the Coral Sea — Part of the Pacific Theater of World War II … Wikipedia, We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Japanese prisoners of war carry their belongings on their heads as they wade to the waiting Landing Craft Vehicle, Kerama Islands which are just west of the main island of Okinawa. The day after, a second general—Brigadier General Claudius M. Easley—was killed by machine gun fire. It took a few days for advancing Allied soldiers to realize that the enemy they faced was hidden away. Bettmann/Getty ImagesDesmond Doss shakes hands with President Harry S. Truman after receiving the Medal of Honor during a ceremony at the White House on Oct. 12, 1945. The Japanese had used kamikaze tactics since the Battle of Leyte Gulf, but for the first time, they became a major part of the defense. U.S. Marine Rifleman view the results of their bombardment on Naha in Okinawa.  Among United States casualties, neither the Army nor the Marine death toll exceeded the Navy death toll in the battle for Okinawa. Then, read more about the fighting in the Pacific Theater, the horror show history wants to forget. LST's (Landing Ship, Tanks) land on the beach at Okinawa. Prime Minister Kantaro Suzuki told the press that his government was "paying no attention" to the ultimatum. U.S. Coast Guard correspondent Victor Hayden lighting a cigarette for an Okinawan peasant woman. Casualties arranged in Even more lives would have been lost were it not for the actions of one medic — and conscientious objector — named Desmond Doss. Japan had effectively disowned the natives of Okinawa; mainland Japanese regarded Okinawans as second-class citizens and these natives paid the price for their homeland. After the battle, the U.S. cleared the surrounding waters of mines in Operation Zebra, occupied Okinawa, and set up the United States Civil Administration of the Ryukyu Islands, a form of military government. At sea, 368 Allied ships—including 120 amphibious craft—were damaged while another 28—including 15 amphibious ships and 12 destroyers—were sunk during the Okinawa campaign. United States Roy GeigerUnited States Joseph StilwellUnited States Chester W. NimitzUnited States Raymond A. SpruanceUnited Kingdom Sir Bernard RawlingsUnited Kingdom Philip VianUnited Kingdom Bruce FraserAxis PowersEmpire of Japan Mitsuru Ushijima †Empire of Japan Isamu Chō †Empire of Japan Minoru Ota †Empire of Japan Keizō Komura, Allies183,000 (initial assault force only)Axis~120,000, including 40,000 impressed Okinawan locals, AlliesMore than 12,000 killedMore than 38,000 wounded36 ships sunk, 368 damaged763 airplanes lost from April 1st to July 1st, 1945AxisMore than 110,000 killed. This would be the last major battle of World War 2. " Military Intelligence combat translator Teruto Tsubota—a U.S. Marine born in Hawaii—convinced hundreds of civilians not to kill themselves and thus saved their lives. In reality there were 130,000 Japanese on Okinawa as well as some 450,000 civilians. Japanese representatives aboard the U.S.S. In addition, 142,058 civilians became casualties. By June it became clear that the Japanese had already lost Okinawa. American soldier speaking on a walkie-talkie set up next to a tomb entrance strewn with clay jars containing human bones which are used by the local inhabitants as burial receptacles. The 32nd Army initially consisted of the 9th, 24th, and 62nd Divisions, and the 44th Independent Mixed Brigade. Battle of Okinawa. © Hulton-Deutsch Collection/CORBIS/Corbis via Getty Images. J. R. Eyerman/Life Magazine/The LIFE Picture Collection via Getty Images. ", On December 26, 2007, MEXT partially admitted the role of the Japanese military in civilian mass suicides.
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